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Other ancient civilizations, notably India and China, used some form of adoption as well.Evidence suggests the goal of this practice was to ensure the continuity of cultural and religious practices; in contrast to the Western idea of extending family lines.Brace considered the abandoned youth, particularly Catholics, to be the most dangerous element challenging the city's order.His solution was outlined in The Best Method of Disposing of Our Pauper and Vagrant Children (1859) which started the Orphan Train movement.Like other contemporary arrangements, the agreement stressed the responsibility of the adopted rather than adopter, focusing on the fact that, under the contract, the adoptive father was meant to be cared for in his old age; an idea that is similar to the conceptions of adoption under Roman law.
Charles Loring Brace, a Protestant minister became appalled by the legions of homeless waifs roaming the streets of New York City.
Without support from the nobility, the practice gradually shifted toward abandoned children.
Abandonment levels rose with the fall of the empire and many of the foundlings were left on the doorstep of the Church.
English Common Law, for instance, did not permit adoption since it contradicted the customary rules of inheritance.
In the same vein, France's Napoleonic Code made adoption difficult, requiring adopters to be over the age of 50, sterile, older than the adopted person by at least 15 years, and to have fostered the adoptee for at least six years.
Initially, the clergy reacted by drafting rules to govern the exposing, selling, and rearing of abandoned children.